[KM-Forum] About Knowledge Definition and Information

Walter walterquattrociocchi at libero.it
Fri Jun 16 12:31:11 IST 2006


A machine organized (defined as a unity) as a network of processes 
production, transformation and destruction of components that produces the 
components which: i) through their interactions and transformations and 
regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced 
them; and ii) constitute it as a concrete unity in the space in which they 
exist by specifying the topological domain of its realization as such a 
network. (Maturana and Varela, 1979).

 Entities may generally be understood as corresponding to physical objects. 
However, from the perspective of the system, an entity is an association of 
correlated observable variables. This association is commonly provided by an 
observational process that groups variables based on spatial co-location. 
Correlation may also be based on temporal location or other, more abstract, 
relations.

Relations can be formally defined as a predicate function of the properties 
of entities. Such relation-observation processes are defined to transform 
entities into relations based on their properties.



the user determines if an entity can satisfy a role for a task



The situation is a particular assignment of entities to roles completed by a 
set of relations between the entities.

Situation may be seen as the "state" of the user with respect to his task. 
The predicates that make up this state space are the roles and relations 
determined by the context. If the relation between entities changes, or if 
the binding of entities to roles changes, then the situation within the 
context has changed. The context and the state space remains the same.

For the system's observation of the world, the situation is the assignment 
of observed entities to roles, and the relations between these entities. 
However, this idea may be extended to the system's reflexive description of 
its internal state. In a reflexive description of the system, the entities 
are the observational processes, and the relations are the connections 
between processes.

Thus a context can be seen as a network of situations and relations defined 
in a common state space. A change in the relation between entities, or a 
change in the assignment of entities to roles is represented as a change in 
situation.

Variation of values in the context gives different meaning at informations.

The main problem of this static view is that it leaves completely implicit 
the fact that every agreement on meaning is always only a partial result in 
a process of meaning formation and negotiation.

The dynamism of a Knowledge base depends on an system's ability to modify 
its conceptual structure, and is normally triggered by the detection of 
anomalous situations.An action is an activity that accomplishes something 
like an evaluation or a movement, and a state is a collection of actions 
that are used when in a particular mode. A state is the circumstance of a 
thing, its condition, and the actions are the attributes of that state. It 
provides the ability to limit the scope of actions or the amount of 
knowledge to only that required for the current state. Context is a crucial 
factor in communication.

This is essentially the view of Clark and Carlson  (1981) who regard context 
as information that is available to a person for interaction with a 
particular process on a given occasion. Their 'intrinsic context' is an 
attempt to capture the information available to a process that is 
potentially necessary for it to succeed. The intrinsic context for grasping 
what an actor means on some occasion is the (limited) totality of the 
knowledge, beliefs, and suppositions that are shared by the speaker and the 
listener. This is also known as the 'common ground.'Categorisation is one of 
the basic mental processes in cognition (Rosch, 1978). Human beings can 
categorise varioustypes of objects, events, and states of affairs, where 
categorisations depend on the circumstance.In order to control the 
interpretation process the intermediate results have to be judged so that 
the best valuated interpretation can be investigated first.



Best Regards

Walter Quattrociocchi







----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Satish, Mariyappagoudar (IE10)" 
<Satish.Mariyappagoudar at honeywell.com>
To: "Global discussion forum for Knowledge Management" 
<km-forum at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in>
Sent: Friday, June 16, 2006 7:51 AM
Subject: RE: [KM-Forum] Welcome to the "KM-Forum" mailing list


> Hi Aletha,
>
> I completely agree with Bruce's view/explanation of intelligence..... I 
> remember a quote but not able to recollect who quoted nor able to write as 
> it is, it's something like:
>
> "Knowledge is abstract, information is specific".
>
> Consider a scenario of that a BI person has to come out with findings of 
> business proposition of a new product in 2 years time and it's comparative 
> situation with that of a competitors similar product. Let's assume the BI 
> person approaches the KM  system for help. Most often he might not get 
> what he wants cause it would not be available in the form he require. The 
> KM would help him in providing reports, data, contact, referral details or 
> anything that might be of some significance to his requirement.
>
> Based on what has provided he will extract specific information such as 
> past learning's, future prospects, forecasts, estimates, and other details 
> that he can find useful for his research. These coupled with details from 
> other sources outside of KM and his own analytic ability, intelligence, 
> his own ideas, priori knowledge he will come out with a report or document 
> that contain his findings and this is knowledge creation. This created 
> knowledge can enable in decision making process.
>
> He is essentially creating this 'newness' out of past knowledge, 
> intelligence and data/information. Something similar to what Bruce has 
> explanied.
>
> This scenario is a typical of what BI does along with others, like I had 
> mentioned earlier e.g., predictive analytics, forecasting, optimization 
> etc...and hence are solution providers. Domains like BI or any other 
> analytics are knowledge creators.
>
> Regards,
> Satish
>
>
>
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
> [mailto:km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in]On Behalf Of Aletha Tavares
> Sent: Thursday, June 15, 2006 6:59 PM
> To: Global discussion forum for Knowledge Management
> Subject: RE: [KM-Forum] Welcome to the "KM-Forum" mailing list
>
>
> Hi,
>
> With regards to definitions as Bruce has put it:
> "In the simplest terms, intelligence is what you know now and knowledge 
> creation is the creation of what you don't know. So then, the essence of 
> knowledge creation is 'newness.'"
>
> & as what Satish has said:
> " BI....offer solutions for providing the right information at the right 
> time so as to enable decision making process..... BI essentially drives 
> the knowledge creation process
>
> Well here what i can surmise is that Bruce says that knowledge creation 
> comes in before Intelligence:one moves from  not knowing ( since knowledge 
> creation is newness) to knowing, what you know
> whereas Satish says just the opposite: BI/Intelligence is the 
> basis/stimulator/driver to knowledge creation
>
> Now the chicken or the egg?
> or do you start with the assumption about "a priori" knowledge, ie. people 
> already have a set of ideas/ knowledge and they find this deficit at times 
> when new situations arise and hence look for new information/answers that 
> will satisfy them which in turn then leads to a new set of information, 
> etc
>
> Satish, a question how can BI offer solutions: how have these solutions 
> been developed? where has the right information come from?
>
> I would tend to lean towards Bruce's explanation of Intelligence, I do 
> know something, this something is not an end in itself, but raises more 
> questions, problems, i seek answers, i need to make a decision, i look for 
> solutions, search for them find many but only one that suits/answers my 
> problem/situation, use it to enable my decision and thus add to my 
> knowledge repertoire, the newness.
>
> regards,
> Aletha
> KM-Officer
> Persistent Systems Pvt. Ltd, Pune
>
>
> Bruce LaDuke <knowledgemachine at hotmail.com> wrote: Marina/Satish,
>
> I do like Satish's definition as one describing what these things are 
> today.
>  Not sure I agree that this is where they are going, or I guess I should
> say what they would be if they were optimized.  As one (small) component 
> of
> this need for a change, I'd like to just toss in some thoughts about the
> term 'business intelligence' itself.  I've added an entry to my blog
> outlining this view.  See the posting "Business Intelligence?"
>
> http://www.hyperadvance.com/blog01/index.php?blog=1
>
> Kind Regards,
>
> Bruce LaDuke
> Managing Director
>
> Instant Innovation, LLC
> Indianapolis, IN
> knowledgemachine at hotmail.com
> http://www.instantinnovation.com
> http://www.hyperadvance.com
>
>
>
> ----Original Message Follows----
> From: "Marina Hiscock"
> Reply-To: Global discussion forum for Knowledge
> Management
> To: "Global discussion forum for Knowledge
> Management"
> Subject: RE: [KM-Forum] Welcome to the "KM-Forum" mailing list
> Date: Tue, 13 Jun 2006 11:16:01 +0200
>
> Thanks Satish, I appreciate and agree with your view
>
> Regards
> Marina
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
> [mailto:km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in] On Behalf Of Satish,
> Mariyappagoudar (IE10)
> Sent: 13 June 2006 06:48 AM
> To: Global discussion forum for Knowledge Management
> Subject: RE: [KM-Forum] Welcome to the "KM-Forum" mailing list
>
> Hi Marina,
>
> KM as a domain is quite vast without known boundaries and hence if you
> look at practices of most of the organizations that have implemented and
> institutionalized KM have different products/solutions/services
> offerings to their internal or external customers. One of the key role
> of KM is to leverage knowledge as a competitive factor in today's
> dynamic world where change is constant. It is also perceived as more
> people centric rather than highlighting technological advances. Also the
> current day KM practices revolve predominantly on unstructured tacit
> information/knowledge that is very difficult to capture, codify and
> document and looks at facilitation and sharing of this hidden knowledge
> from one to another using technology and process frameworks as enablers.
>
> Business Intelligence or any other analytic subject areas such as IP,
> Innovation, market, product analysis on the other hand offer solutions
> for providing the right information at the right time so as to enable
> decision making process. The advanced form of BI have domains involving
> predictive analytics such as forecasting, data mining, optimization etc.
> KM can be one of the key factors in providing much higher levels of
> insight and foresight which drives the value of shared knowledge.
>
> BI essentially drives the knowledge creation process and is a key
> business driver for producing the type of knowledge that is worth
> sharing and learning from one another. KM concerns itself with making
> sure that this knowledge is shared most effectively within and around
> the organization thus complementing each other.
>
> Thanks and Regards,
> Satish
>
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
> [mailto:km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in]On Behalf Of Marina Hiscock
> Sent: Monday, June 12, 2006 10:56 AM
> To: km-forum at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
> Subject: [KM-Forum] Welcome to the "KM-Forum" mailing list
>
>
> Hi everyone
>
> I am trying to figure out what or where or how does KM and BI (Business
> Intelligence focusing on Data) links up... what is the relationship and
> how does it compliment each other.  What are the unique differences
> between BI and KM?  I have my own views and ideas (thinking of the Data,
> Information, and Knowledge Ladder) but would like to hear your views and
> wisdom on this.
> Regards
> Marina Hiscock
> South Africa
>
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
> From: km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
> [mailto:km-forum-bounces at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in] On Behalf Of
> km-forum-request at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
> Sent: 12 June 2006 07:53 AM
> To: Marina Hiscock
> Subject: Welcome to the "KM-Forum" mailing list
>
> Welcome to the KM-Forum at ncsi.iisc.ernet.in mailing list!
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